Novel Drying Methods for Sustainable Upcycling of Brewers’ Spent Grains as a Plant Protein Source

Singh Anubhav Pratap , Ronit Mandal , Maryam Shojaei , Anika Singh , Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski , Marta Ligaj , Jarosław Pawlicz , Maciej Jarzębski

Abstract

Brewers’ spent grains (BSGs) are the most important by-product of the brewing industry and are rich in protein and fiber. However, abundant amounts of BSGs are discarded annually worldwide. This project aimed to employ and compare innovative drying techniques to introduce snacks with protein sources derived from leftover BSGs. This study explored the dehydration kinetics of BSGs and the effect of three different drying methods—oven drying (OD), freeze drying (FD), and vacuum microwave drying (VMD)—on their protein content and functionality. Then, an energy and exergy analysis for the drying methods was given. Accordingly, a snack product (baked chips) using the dehydrated BSGs was developed by a sensory panel study to assess consumer acceptability of the final products. It was found that the VMD process took less drying time (48 min) compared to OD (50 min), with higher effectiveness as a drying process. VMD-treated BSG also showed moderate protein functionality and the highest overall acceptability when used in baked chips. Thus, VMD might be used as a sustainable drying technology for thermal treatment and valorization of BSG. In addition to having implications for dietary health, findings can help improve the economy of the breweries and other industries that deal with the processing of grains by valorizing their process waste and contributing to sustainability.
Author Singh Anubhav Pratap
Singh Anubhav Pratap,,
-
, Ronit Mandal
Ronit Mandal,,
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, Maryam Shojaei
Maryam Shojaei,,
-
, Anika Singh
Anika Singh,,
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, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski - Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, MNiSW [80]
Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski,,
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, Marta Ligaj (WT / KTiEPP)
Marta Ligaj,,
- Department of Industrial Products and Ecology
, Jarosław Pawlicz
Jarosław Pawlicz,,
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, Maciej Jarzębski
Maciej Jarzębski,,
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Journal seriesSustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2020
Vol12
No9
Pages1-17
Publication size in sheets0.7
Article number3660
Keywords in Polishmłóto browarniane (BSG); kinetyka suszenia; funkcjonalność białka; techniki odwodnienia; egzergia
Keywords in Englishbrewers’ spent grain (BSG); drying kinetics; protein functionality; dehydration techniques; exergy
ASJC Classification3305 Geography, Planning and Development; 2105 Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; 2308 Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
DOIDOI:10.3390/su12093660
URL https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/9/3660
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 05-05-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 0.911; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.592 (2) - 2018=2.801 (5)
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