Efficiency of the EU Environmental Policy in Struggling with Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): How Agriculture Makes a Difference

Bazyli Czyżewski , Anna Matuszczak , Łukasz Kryszak , Andrzej Czyżewski


Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions are an important global issue as air pollutants lead to approximately 7 million deaths per year (World Health Organization). In an attempt to combat this global threat, countries in the European Union (EU) allocate relatively large funds for environmental policies. The main goal of this paper is to assess the long-term efficiency of the EU countries’ environmental policy in reducing the pressure of particulates pollution on the natural environment. For this purpose, multilevel panel regression models based on seminal within–between specification are used. The models are run for a panel of 25 EU countries for the years 2004–2016. In the investigations, we tried to capture the effect of the share of utilized agricultural area (UAA) in non-urban areas of the analyzed countries, as it may potentially influence policy efficiency. It was found that environmental spending in all main categories (pollution abatement, biodiversity, R&D, and environmental protection) had a significant impact on decreasing pollution pressure; however, the policy was more efficient in countries which had a lower share of UAA in their non-urban areas. The study emphasized that the impact of “pollution abatement” expenditure may be underestimated in basic panel models.
Author Bazyli Czyżewski (WE / KMiGŻ)
Bazyli Czyżewski,,
- Department of Macroeconomics and Agricultural Economics
, Anna Matuszczak (WE / KMiGŻ)
Anna Matuszczak,,
- Department of Macroeconomics and Agricultural Economics
, Łukasz Kryszak (WE / KMiGŻ)
Łukasz Kryszak,,
- Department of Macroeconomics and Agricultural Economics
, Andrzej Czyżewski - Uniwersytet Zielonogórski (UZ)
Andrzej Czyżewski,,
Journal seriesSustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.8
Keywords in Polishdrobnocząsteczkowy pył zawieszony (PM2.5); ograniczanie zanieczyszczeń; wydatki na ochronę środowiska; analiza skuteczności polityki; Unia Europejska
Keywords in Englishfine particulate matter (PM2.5); pollution abatement; environmental expenditures; policy efficiency analysis; European Union
ASJC Classification3305 Geography, Planning and Development; 2105 Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; 2308 Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
URL https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/18/4984
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 16-04-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 0.911; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.592 (2) - 2018=2.801 (5)
Citation count*6 (2020-10-19)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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