Shifting Value Added Tax to Labor - the Case of the Book Market in Central and Eastern European Countries

Arkadiusz Bernal


In the literature the question whether a tax burden is shifted on labor doesn’t have a clear answer. Using data which refers to book publishers in the Central and Eastern European Countries I try to answer the question whether employees bear the tax burden of the value added tax imposed on books. I test the hypothesis that the higher the value added tax rate is the lower the costs of employees are. To examine the relation between the value added tax rate and the costs of employees, a regression analysis is used. The models presented in the paper allow us to give the positive answer to the main question. The research supports other authors’ findings that labor, at least partly, bears tax, which is not imposed directly on wages.
Author Arkadiusz Bernal (WZ / KFP)
Arkadiusz Bernal,,
- Department of Corporate Finance
Journal seriesJournal of Management VADYBA, ISSN 1648-7974, e-ISSN 2424-399X, (0 pkt)
Issue year2014
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in Englishtax incidence, value added tax, book market, developing countries
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)5
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 0.0, 23-12-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 5.0, 23-12-2019, ArticleFromJournal
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